Author guidelines

Recommendations on Usage of a Text Editor

  1. Use a text editor Microsoft Word, Open Office, or any other text editor working with the format of *.doc, *.docx or *.rtf.
  2. The text of the paper should include the following components: the title of the paper, authors’ names and institutional affiliations, an abstract, keywords; then the body of the paper with subtitles, cited literature (References), Tables – each on a separate page, Captions to Figures – on a separate page. Mathematical, physical, chemical formulas must be placed in the body of the paper.
  3. Use Times New Roman for the body of the text; for Gothic symbols and formulas use the standards lapplications ike Ecuation Editor / MathType (for MS Word) or Math (for OpenOffice).
  4. The beginning of the paper should be arranged according to the following: the title of the paper, authors’ names and their institutional affiliations, email of the corresponding author, the date when the paper was received, an abstract (up to 200 words), keywords. Standard font sizes for the whole paper are (line spaces - 1 and 2 cm margins top, botoom left and right): the title of the paper – 18; authors' names – 12; institutional affiliation, e-mail 10; body of the paper – 11, abstract, keywords and refeerences – 10, figure captions - 9.
    For example:

    Properties of CoW Alloy Coatings Electrodeposited

    from Citrate Electrolytes Containing Surface Active Substances


    Zh. I. Bobanovaa, V. I. Petrenkoa, G. F. Volodinaa, D. Z. Grabkoa, and A. I. Dikusara, b


    аInstitute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD–2028, Republic of Moldova

    bShevchenko Pridnestrov’e State University, ul. 25 Oktyabrya 128, Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova, email:

    Received: March 30, 2011; in final form, August 17, 2011





  5. Use either Russian or English but not both languages in the same paper. Do not use both Cyrillic and Latin letters in one and the same word/name.
  6. Do not use double space between words — use auto-indentation and tabulation.
  7. Do not end the line by pressing the key “Enter” – use it only when you want to begin a new paragraph.
  8. Make your text editor work the way you want in text formatting – compose tests with (or without) word-wrapping, making lists, auto-indentation, etc
  9. Make up Tables using built-in text editor features for Table. Hand-made Tables (with multiple spaces and pseudo-graphics, without cells) shall not be used in the paper.

Recommendations for Abstract Writing

An abstract is a shortened version of the paper and should contain all information necessary for the reader to determine:

  1. what the objectives of the study were,
  2. how the study was done,
  3. what results were obtained,
  4. and the significance of the results.

Frequently, readers of a scientific journal will only read the abstract, choosing to read at length those papers that are most interesting to them. For this reason, and because abstracts are frequently made available to scientists by various computer abstracting services, this section should be written carefully and succinctly to have the greatest impact in as few words as possible.

Style: The Abstract is ONLY text. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use present perfect and present tenses. Maximum length should be 200 words, usually in a single paragraph.

Recommendations for the list of Keywords

Keywords are words that appear with statistically unusual frequency in a text.

They may be both words and phrases, and each entry is a separate functional element.

Keyword requirements:

  • the keywords (5-10) should contain ALL the essential words/terms from the article, and
  • be in an optimum format, if more than 1 word, the words should be a phrase not a description (see below).

Key words may be words and phrases from:

  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Introduction and Conclusions

For example:

Manuscript title: Direct observation of nonlinear optics in an isolated carbon nanotube.

Poor keywords: molecule, optics, lasers, energy lifetime.

Better keywords: single-molecule interaction, Kerr effect, carbon nanotubes, energy level structure.

Recommendations on Type Setting

  1. Use only Latin alphabet for the text of the paper.
  2. Do not use “UPPERCASE” but “Title Case for the title of the paper.
  3. Use a period, not comma, in decimal digits (e.g., 0.25 not 0,25).
  4. Use the character mode (that is, do not use introduced frames; do not use formula editors like Equation Editor, MathType, etc.) for: symbols *, ‘, ±, single Greek characters, single slanted and/or boldfaced characters, single variables and/or indexes with only superscript or subscript, units of measurement, numerals in the body of the paper, as well as simple mathematical and/or chemical formulas (e.g., a2+b2=c2; H2SO4).
  5. Use one space between the author’s initials and the name (e.g., А.А. Brown) in the body of the paper and in References, but not in the heading of the paper, where one space must be used everywhere (e.g., А. А. Brown).
  6. Type the date in the form “date.month.year” , that is, as 02.05.1991, 26.12.1874, etc. in the paper, with the exception of the “Received” date.
  7. To denote vector quantity, use the symbol of an arrow above the value (italicized) , for example: B, but not a boldface type.
  8. Do not use a period after: the title of the paper; list of authors; their affiliations; headings and subheadings; table names; dimensions, for example: s - second, g - gram, L – liter, mL – milliliter, min - minute, h – hour, deg - degree).
  9. Use a period with: footnotes; notes to tables; figure captions; abbreviations (e.g.- for example, etc. - and so on, Feb., Prof., c. / ca. - circa or around, et al. - and others, no. – number, p. /  pp. - page/pages, vol. - volume, vs. - versus), but not in subscripts (Tm—melting temperature, Tp.t.— phase transition temperature).

Recommendations for Typing Formulas

  1. Free-standing mathematical formulas (done on a separate line) must be typed in the MathType frame as a whole. It is not permitted to type formulas from constituent elements (a part of a formula as a table, a part as text, and a part in the introduced frame).
  2. The settings of types, size of symbols, and their placement used for formulas typed in MathType must be general. Their forced manual change for separate symbols and elements of formulas is not allowed.

Recommendations for Preparing Figures

The following guidelines shall be observed when preparing Figures. Failure to do so is likely to delay acceptance and publication of the paper. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that figures are provided at a sufficiently high resolution to ensure high quality reproduction in the final version of a paper.

  1. Figures must be numbered in the order they are first mentioned in the text, and uploaded in this order.
  2. Figures must be created as an e-version (on a computer, using image-editing software). Hand-made Figures on paper, tracing paper, grade paper will not be accepted. Scanned copies will not be accepted either. Figures must be created with ’No fill’ or transparent shading.
  3. Figures and graphs must be converted into black-and-white images or shades of gray. Visuals that use any other color will not be accepted. When using two or more shades of gray (for example, in a bar or pie chart), be sure to have maximum contrast between the shades (for example, 10% gray, 35% gray and 60% gray). Do not go beyond 60% gray because that part of the image may end up looking black in the printed version.
  4. Do not use light hues for drawing curves. When drawing curves with multiple crossing and/or closely sited, it is recommended to use a darker hue but with a different typeface: varied thickness of solid lines, dashed lines, dotted lines. The recommended thickness must be 0.8 pt (≥ 10 pixels) at the Figure of the size below. (see Fig. 1 as an example).



    Fig. 1. Initial image (a) and its recommended version (b)

  5. Color figures and photographs can be accepted only in exceptional cases: they will be charged! In color figures do not use yellow, pale-blue and pale-green colors, as they will look colorless when converted in gray shades.
  6. Photographs must be submitted in the file format TIFF, with the optimal resolution 300 dpi, and the dimensions specified below.
  7. Files with images must be submitted in the file format TIFF (mostly desirable); also formats PDF, PNG, JPG, EPS, PS, EMF, WMF can be used. Vector figures, diagrams, and schemes must be submitted in EPS format or in the native format of the program in which they were made (for example, *.opj, *.nb).
  8. EPS-files must not contain a TIFF file for preview purposes; it must be an EPSI which is an EPS file with a platform device independent preview. EPSI is an all ASCII – a 7-bits (no binary data or headers) version of EPS.
  9. When the body of the paper is composed together with figures as a single file, then each figure must be supplied, supplementary, as a separate file.
  10. When figures are prepared in MS Word, as a separate file, they must have the extension doc or docx. Each file must contain one Figure. The file name must be composed of lowercase Latin letters: a, b, c,…, Arabic numerals: 1, 2, 3,…, and the name of the first author, then the abbreviation “Fig”, the serial number of the figure (as in the body of the paper), and, if necessary, additional information, for example: vasilyak_fig03a.tif, vasilyak_fig15_row1-1.eps.
  11. For both vector and MS Word figures PDF files with the included fonts must be submitted. It is also allowed to use RAR, ZIP and other archive formats. The text of the paper and the files with figures (if separate) can be also accepted as RAR, ZIP documents.
  12. Figure Captions must be clear and informative.
  13. All formulas and symbols must be computer-typed with the accurate identification of the text details, such as italics, subscripts, superscripts, and the like: for example: “CO2; m2”. In the subscripts to axes the value of measure must be separated from the unit of measure by a comma and a single spacing, for example: “Т, °C”. The symbol “*” (asterisk) must be used as a symbol of multiplication. To denote vector quantity, use the symbol of an arrow above the value (italicized) , for example: “B”, but not a boldface type.
  14. Fugures must be clearcut. Dimensions of a raster drawing (quality depends on the scale) with the resolution not less that 1200 dpi in width must be: 4 cm, at least (for example: 1890 pels, in case of 4 or fewer drawings in a raw), and 17 cm, at most (for example: 8031 pels, the height must be 24 cm, at most (11339 pels). Figures of bigger dimensions will be diminished by technical editors. Figure and photo captions must be in conformity with their descriptions in the text of the paper. All Figures and photos must have captions. In Figure Captions use standard Windows TrueType fonts: Times New Roman, 9 points; Print the word Fig. (not Figure!), Bold type.
  15. Figures must be presented according to the instructions above. Otherwise either the paper will be rejected or the author(s) will be advised to re-make the figures in conformity with the instructions herein. If the Editorial Board has no reply from the author(s) within the period specified in the accompanying letter, they reserve the right to take the final decision on the publication of the paper.

Abridgments and Abbreviations

Abridgements made of several words are separated with spaces (760 m. t., r. c., “p. a.”, r. f.), with the exception of the most commonly used: etc.; e.g.; i.e.


  1. Dimensions are separated from a number by a space (100 kPa, 77 K, 10.34(2) A), except for the symbols of degree, percent, pro mil: 90°, 20°C, 50%, 10‰. Fractional dimensions must be: 58 J/mole, 50 m/s2.
  2. For complex dimensions, it is permitted to use both negative powers (J mole–1 K–1) and brackets {J/(mole K) or J(mole K)–1} if this makes it easier to read them. The main condition is to use uniform spelling of the same dimensions.
  3. When enumerating and using numeric intervals, a dimension is given only for the last number (18– 20 J/mole), with the exception of angular degrees.
  4. Centigrade degrees are given as 5°C, not as 5°. Angular degrees are never omitted: 5°–10°, but not 5–10°.
  5. Dimensions of variables are written with a comma (E, kJ/mole); those of sub-logarithmic values are given in square brackets without a comma: ln t [min].



1. Unit modifiers used as predicate adjectives. In general, only unit modifiers that consist of nouns and adjectives can be used as predicate adjectives. For example: size-dependent, Na+-form, OH-group.

2. Two colors that are of equal value: blue-green algae; red-green color blindness; yellow-green solution.

3. A suffix to a proper name: Schottky-type defects; Moscow-like prices.

Do not hyphenate:

1. Unit modifiers in the following instances:

a. if the first word is an adverb ending in -ly or very: recently developed procedure; a very well studied hypothesis;

b. if the unit modifier is a chemical name: barium sulfate precipitate; sodium hydroxide solution;

c. if it is a color combination where the first one modifies the second: bluish green tint; dark red car; coal black surface;

d. if one or more words in the unit modifier are a proper name: Lewis acid catalysis; Monte Carlo method; Eastern European politics;

e. if the first word in the unit modifier is a comparative or superlative: higher temperature reactions; lowest frequency wavelengths.

Spaces between Words

  1. In the text of the paper references to Figures and Tables are typed with spaces: Fig. 1, Table 2, but not Fig.1, Table2.
  2. Quotation marks and brackets are not separated by spaces from the words within them: (at 300 K, (a), but not (at 300 K), (a).
  3. A space is left between the sign of a number or a paragraph and the respective number: no. 1; § 5.3.
  4. Centigrade degrees are given as 5°C, not as 5°. Angular degrees are never omitted: 5°–10°, but not 5–10°.
  5. Combinations of numerals and letters in designations are typed without spaces: 1.3.14a; Fig. 1e.


The list of References should include only the works cited in the text and that have been published. Personal communications and unpublished works should be mentioned only in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a Reference list.

Citations in the text should be identified by Arabic numerals in square brackets.

Reference list entries should be numbered consecutively and listed at the end of the article in the following way:

  1. Journal article : Surname(s), Initials of all authors. the Title of the paper. Journal. Year, volume(issue), the first and the last page of the paper, for example::

    Palii A.V., Clemente-Juan J.M., Coronado E., Klokishner S.I., Ostrovsky S.M., Reu O.S. Role of orbital degeneracy in the single molecule magnet behavior of a mononuclear high-spin Fe(II) complex. Inorganic Chemistry. 2010, 49(17), 8073-8077.

    Journal Title Abbreviations:

    1. For ISI-monitored journals, please, use abbreviated - title case - no dot form of the journal title. Standard ISI-type journal title abbreviations can be checked out at pages at ISI:
      Examples of journal title abbreviations:
      • Surf Eng Appl Elect – for Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry,
      • J Appl Electrochem - for Journal of Applied Electrochemistry.
    2. For ex-USSR journals, please, use abbreviated or full form of the journal title as used before through decades.
      • ЖЭТФ – for Журнал экспериментальной и теоретической физики,
      • Электрохимия – for Электрохимия.
    3. For other journals, not included in above cases, please, provide not abbreviated - original (except J as abbreviation for Journal) title of journals.
      • Moldavian J of Physical Sciences - for Moldavian Journal of Physical Sciences,
      • Журнал Нижнеградского технического общества - for Журнал Нижнеградского технического общества.
  2. Books : Surname(s), Initials of all authors, the Title of the book. City: Publishing House, year. Total pages (e.g. 54 pp.). If a certain page is cited, it should be mentioned, for example:

    Ursachi V., Tighineanu I., Manjon F. AIIBII2CIV4 compounds under high presure. Chisinau: Stiinta, 2010. 168 p.


    Ursachi V., Tighineanu I., Manjon F. AIIBII2CIV4 compounds under high presure. Chisinau: Stiinta, 2010, pp. 21-34.

  3. Book chapter/section: The basic elements of a citation of a chapter in a book are: Surname(S), Initials of the Author (S) of the chapter, Title of the chapter; Title of the book, Surname(S), Initials of the editor (S) of the Book, Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication (if available). Pages of the chapter, for example:

    Simaschevici A., Serban D. and Bruc L. Solar Cells on the Base of Semiconductor-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures. In: Solar cells – silicon wafer-based technologies. Kosyachenko L.A. (Ed). Rijeca, Croatia: InTech, 2011. 299–332.

  4. Patents :

    Williams D. Screw Less Clip Mounted Computer Drive. U.S. Patent 6,885,550, issued April 26, 2005.

    Patent codes by country are available at:
  5. Internet resources :
       - Official online periodicals and open access journals:

    Galinov I.V., Luban R.B. Mass transfer trends during electrospark alloying. Surface and Coatings Technology. 1996, 79(1–3), 9–18.

      - A paper with DOI:

    Strukov D.B., Snider G.S., Stewart D.R., Williams S. R. The missing memristor found. Nature. 2008, 453, 80-83. DOI: 10.1038/nature06932

  6. Conference materials :
    Participation in a conference is a way to fix the date of your priority in the respective area and report new, unpublished results. So, it is not recommended to cite short texts of Abstracts published many years ago. It is quite possible that several (maybe even a lot of) publications with more detailed descriptions appeared in journals and as chapters in books. It is not recommended either to cite stale and difficult to access materials.
    The meeting abstracts/proceedings published as hard copied or available on CD-ROM, in the Internet, must be cited according to the general rules (examples are given below). It is necessary to give the names of the presenters, the title of their presentation; the name of the conference, the date, the place where it was held, and the year of it. If the publication has the DOI, it must be given, obligatory.

    The name(s) of the presenter(s). The title of their presentation. The title of the book with the name of the conference, the date and the place where it was held. The publisher (if indicated) and the year of publication. The page (s) of the text . If the publication has the DOI, it must be given, obligatory.

  7. Entries in References must be given in the language of the publication. When other than Latin or Cyrillic alphabets are used, they must be transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

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